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The Tagalog language has developed a unique vocabulary since its inception from its Austronesian roots. According to lexographer Jose Villa Panganiban, "of the 30,000 root words in the Tagalog language, there are close to 4,000 from Spanish, 3,000 from Malay, 2,000 from English, 2,000 from both Hokkien (Min Nan) and Yue Chinese dialects, 300 from Tamil and Sanskrit, 200 from Arabic, 10 percent of Tagalog is from Nahuatl origins,[1] and a few hundred altogether from other languages". Linguists say that borrowings from Malay and Chamorro cannot be ascertained at this time, as words from the Old Austronesian language and those from Malay and Chamorro are still ambiguous and too similar to be distinguished.

Contents

Spanish[edit]

See also: Spanish language in the Philippines, Spanish influence on Filipino culture, and Chavacano

The Filipino language incorporated Spanish loanwords as a result of 333 years of contact with the Spanish language. In their review of a Pilipino-English dictionary, Llamzon and Thorpe (1972) point out that 40% of word roots are of Spanish origin.[2] An example is the sentence below in which Spanish–derived words are in italics (original in parentheses):

Tagalog: "Puwede (Puede) ba akong umupo sa silya (silla) sa tabi ng bintana (ventana) habang nasa biyahe (viaje) tayo sa eroplano (aeroplano)?" Translation in English: ("May I sit on the chair near the window during our voyage in the aeroplane?")

The adoption of the Abakada alphabet in 1940[3] changed the spelling of most of the Spanish loanwords present in the Filipino language. The loanwords derived from the Spanish language have their original spellings indigenized according to the rules of the Abakada alphabet. Examples include agila (from Sp. águila), alkalde (from Sp. alcalde), bakuna (from Sp. vacuna), banyo (from Sp. baño), baso (from Sp. vaso), biktima (from Sp. víctima), bintana (from Sp. ventana), bisita (from Sp. visita), biyahe (from Sp. viaje), braso (from Sp. brazo), demokrasya (from Sp. democracia), diyaryo (from Sp. diario), estudyante (from Sp. estudiante), heneral (from Sp. general), hustisya (from Sp. justicia), kama (from Sp. cama), kambyo (from Sp. cambio de marcha), keso (from Sp. queso), kutsara (from Sp. cuchara), kwarto (from Sp. cuarto), kwento (from Sp. cuento), lababo (from Sp. lavabo), mensahe (from Sp. mensaje), meryenda (from Sp. merienda), mikrobyo (from Sp. microbio), niyebe (from Sp. nieve), panyo (from Sp. paño), pila (from Sp. fila), plema (from Sp. flema), presyo (from Sp. precio), prinsesa (from Sp. princesa), reseta (from Sp. receta médica), reyna (from Sp. reina), serbisyo (from Sp. servicio), sinturon (from Sp. cinturón), teklado (from Sp. teclado), telebisyon (from Sp. televisión), tinidor (from Sp. tenedor), trabaho (from Sp. trabajo), tuwalya (from Sp. toalla) and yelo (from Sp. hielo).[4][5][6]

Other loanwords derived from the Spanish language underwent spelling and pronunciation changes. Vowel changes can be observed to some of the Spanish words upon adoption into the Filipino language. For example, an /i/ to /a/ vowel shift can be observed in the Filipino word paminta, which came from the Spanish word pimienta.[4] A rare vowel change from /e/ to /u/ can be observed in the words unano (from Sp. enano) and umpisa (from Sp. empezar). Other words derived from Spanish underwent vowel deletion upon adoption into the Filipino language, such as the words pusta (from Sp. apostar), tarantado (from Sp. atarantado), kursonada (from Sp. corazonada), Pasko (from Sp. Pascua) and labi (from Sp. labio).[4] Consonant shifts can also be observed to some of the Spanish words upon their adoption into the Filipino language. The [r] to [l] consonant shift can be observed in the following words: albularyo (witch doctor or folk healer, from Sp. herbolario), alma (from Sp. armar), almusal (from Sp. almorzar), asukal (from Sp. azúcar), balbas (from Sp. barba), bandila (from. Sp. bandera), dasal (from Sp. rezar), hibla (thread or strand, from Sp. hebra), hilo (dizzy, from Sp. giro), hulmá (to mould, from Sp. ahormar), kasal (from Sp. casar), kumpisal (from Sp. confesar), litratista (photographer, from Sp. retratista), litrato (photograph, portrait or picture; from Sp. retrato), multo (from Sp. muerto), nunal (from Sp. lunar), pastol (from Sp. pastor) and pasyal (from Sp. pasear). The loss of the /l/ phoneme can be observed in the Filipino word kutson derived from the Spanish colchón. The loss of the /t/ phoneme can be observed in the Filipino words talino[7] (intelligence or wisdom, from Sp. talento) and tina[8] (dye, from Sp. tinta). Some Spanish-derived words have also undergone consonant or syllable deletion upon introduction to Tagalog like in the case of limos (from Sp. limosna), masyado (from Sp. demasiado), posas (from Sp. esposas), restawran (from Sp. restaurante), riles (rail, railway or railroad; from Sp. carriles), sindi (from Sp. third-person singular present tense conjugation of the verb encender) and sintonado (from Sp. desentonado).[5]

The Spanish digraph [ll] is pronounced by the Spaniards as /j/ during the Renaissance era and this reflected on the pronunciation and the spelling of Spanish-derived loanwords in Tagalog introduced before the 19th century, where the digraph [ll] becomes [y] in Tagalog.[9] Such is the case of the words barya (from Sp. barilla), kabayo (from Sp. caballo), kutamaya (from. Sp. cota de malla), lauya (a stew of meat and vegetables, from Sp. la olla), sibuyas (from Sp. cebollas) and tabliya or tablea (from Sp. tablilla de chocolate). Spanish loanwords in which the digraph [ll] is pronounced as /lj/ in Tagalog were probably introduced (or reintroduced) during the 19th century by educated Peninsulares.[9] Examples include apelyido (from Sp. apellido), balyena (from Sp. ballena), kalye (from Sp. calle), kutsilyo (from Sp. cuchillo), makinilya (from Sp. maquinilla de escribir), sepilyo (from Sp. cepillo de dientes), silya (from Sp. silla) and sigarilyo (from Sp. cigarrillo).[9] There are also instances of the Spanish digraph [ll] being transformed into [l] upon adoption by Tagalog. Such is the case of the following words: kulani (lymph node, from Sp. collarín[10]), kursilista (from Sp. cursillista) and uling (coal, soot or charcoal; from Sp. hollín[11]).

Others have morphed like 'ku(ha)nin' (Sp.: 'coja' + Tag.: '–nin'), which has inconspicuously developed into another pure Tagalog–sounding word. Another one is maamong kordero (from Sp. amo & cordero). Combined together, it conveys the description of a meek, tame, harmless human with Tagalog adjective prefix and suffix added. The compound word batya't palo–palo, a must word in the laundry business where many Spanish words proliferate. The words were taken from the Spanish batea for "washing tub" and palo for "stick" or "beater", something a typical Filipino might think had no Spanish provenance at all. Others are umpisa (empieza), pulubi (pobre), pader (pared).

Some have acquired an entirely new meaning, such as kursonada (corazonada, originally meaning '"hunch"), which means "object of desire"; sospechoso is the "suspicious person" and not the "suspect" as in the original; insekto ("insecto"), which still means "insect" but also refers to a "pesty clownish person"; or even sige (sigue), a Spanish word for "continue" or "follow", which is now widely understood to mean "all right" or "go ahead".

Others use Spanish prefixes and/or suffixes, combined from Tagalog or other languages, without which the word can not be completed and convey its meaning. For example, pakialamero (from Tag. pakialam, "to meddle" and the Sp. suffix –ero, masculine subject); same as majongero ("mahjong", a Chinese word and the Sp. suffix –ero). Daisysiete is a corruption and portmanteau of the English "daisy" and the Spanish diecisiete ("seventeen"), now meaning a sweet and sexually desirable underaged (below 18, hence the number) female. Bastusing katawán (Sp.: basto & Tag.: katawan) is an example of a two-word term for a bombshell body

Even after the Spanish era, Tagalog is still being influenced by Spanish as new words are coined, albeit along its own terms, viz., alaskadór ("Alaska" + Sp. suffix '–ador'); barkada (from Sp.: barca,"boat" to "clique"); bérde ("verde"="green", nuanced to "toilet humour" or "blue joke"); which are not readily understood in Spain or any Latin American country. In a strange twist, even if Filipinos have a chance to Tagalized words using foreign words, currently English—their most accessible influence—they coin words in a uniquely Hispanizing way i.e. "boksingero" (from Eng. "boxing") instead of using the Spanish "boxeador". Or "basketbolista" (from Eng. "basketball"), instead of borrowing from Spanish "baloncesto" to make it say "baloncestista" or "baloncestador" (although basketball "básquetbol" in many Latin American countries).

Here are some examples of Spanish–derived Tagalog words in the following format: Word (Etymology – Original Definition/s if different from Nuanced Definition. = Derivative Definition if Compound Words) – Nuanced Definition. Shared Definition precedes Nuanced Definition if both exist.

Tagalog Spanish Meaning Native equivalent(s)
Abante Avante Ahead; Forward Pasulóng, Pausad
Abelyana[12] Avellana Common hazel (Corylus avellana)
Abiso Aviso Warning Babalâ
Ahedres Ajedrez Chess
Ahente Agente Agent Kinatawán
Alemanya Alemania Germany
Algodon Algodon Cotton; False trevally (Lactarius lactarius)[13] Bulak (cotton); Pagapa (Lactarius lactarius)
Amarilyo Amarillo Yellow Dilaw
Antena Antena Antenna
Aparadór Aparador Closet
Asoge Azogue Mercury (Hg)
Asul Azul Blue Bughaw
Asupre Azufre Sulfur (S) Sangyawa
Atenas Atenas Athens
Baryo Barrio Village Barangay, Bukid, Nayon
Baso Vaso Drinking glass
Basura Basura Garbage, Trash, Waste Kalat, Dumi
Bentilador Ventilador Electric fan
Bisagra Bisagra Hinge (door)
Bisikleta Bicicleta Bicycle
Bruha Bruja Witch; Woman with unpleasant personality Mangkukulam
Bulsá Bolsa Pocket
Busina Bocina Car horn
Britanya Britania Britain
Datos Datos Datum/Data
Departamento Departamento Department Kagawarán
Dinero Dinero Money Pera, salapi
Diskaril Descarrilar To derail
Diyos Dios God Panginoon
Duwende Duende Elf, goblin
Dyaryo Diario Newspaper Pahayagan
Ebanghelyo Evangelio Gospel Mabuting Balita
Edad Edad Age Gulang
Ekolohiya Ecologia Ecology
Ekonomiya Economia Economy Kabuhayan, Pagtitipid, Katipirán
Ekwador Ecuador Equator
Elyo Helio Helium (He)
Embahada Embajada Embassy Pasuguan
Embahador Embajador Ambassador
Ensalada Ensalada Salad
Eroplano Aeroplano Airplane
Espanyol/Español Español Spanish
Espongha Esponja Sponge
Estados Unidos Estados Unidos United States
Estadístika Estadística Statistics
Estúpido Estúpido Stupid Tanga
Garahe Garaje Garage Taguán (lit. "hiding place")
Gasolina Gasolina Gasoline
Gastos Gastos Expenses
Gitara Guitarra Guitar
Gobyerno Gobierno Government Pamahalaan
Gwapo/Guwapo Guapo Handsome Makisig, Magandang lalaki
Giyera Guerra War Digmaan
Hapón Japón Japan
Haponés Japonés Japanese
Hardin Jardín Garden Halamanan
Hardinero Jardinero Gardener
Hepe Jefe Chief of police
Heringgilya Jeringuilla Syringe
Idroheno Hidrógeno Hydrogen (H)
Industriya Industria Industry
Ingles Inglés English
Inglatera Inglaterra England
Intindí Entiende Understand Unawà
Kalabasa Calabaza Squash (Cucurbita maxima)
Kaloriya Caloría Calorie (unit of energy or heat)
Kamelyo Camello Camel
Kampeon Campeón Champion
Kandidato Candidato Candidate
Kapasidad Capacidad Capacity Kakayahán
Kapilya Capilla Chapel
Keso Queso Cheese
Kerosina Querosina Kerosene
Kloro Cloro Chlorine (Cl)
Kobalto Cobalto Cobalt (Co)
Koléhiyo Colegio College Dalubhasaan
Kolesterol Colesterol Cholesterol
Konstitusyón Constitución Constitution Saligang Batás (lit. "basic/foundational law")
Kontrabando Contrabando Contraband, Smuggled Goods
Konsepto Concepto Concept Dalumat
Kordero Cordero Lamb Batang tupa
Kotse/Awto Coche/Auto Car/Auto Sasakyán (lit. the more general "vehicle")
Kulebra Culebra Shingles
Kumusta ¿Cómo está? How is/are? (interrogative word used as a substitute for an adjective of quality)[14]
Kuweba Cueva Cave Yungib
Kuwenta Cuenta Bill Bayarin
Lapis Lápiz Pencil
Libra Libra Pound (unit of measurement)
Linggwistika Lingüística Linguistics
Loko Loco Crazy Balíw, sira-ulo
Lugar Lugar Place Poók
Luhò Lujo Luxury Rangyâ, Karangyaan
Maleta Maleta Suitcase, luggage
Mani Maní Peanut
Mantikà Manteca Cooking oil
Mantsa Mancha Stain
Margarina Margarina Margarine
Matemátika Matemática Mathematics
Matemátiko Matemático Mathematician
Memorya Memoria Memory Alaala, Gunita
Militar Militar Military Hukbo, Sandatahan
Minuto Minuto Minute (unit of time)
Miyembro Miembro Member Kasapi, Kagawad
Monarkiya Monarquía Monarchy Kaharián (lit. "kingdom")
Motorsiklo Motocicleta Motorcycle
Musika Música Music Tugtugin
Mustasa Mostaza Mustard
Nasyonalista Nacionalista Nationalist Makabayan, Makabansâ
Obispo Obispo Bishop
Oksiheno Oxígeno Oxygen (O)
Olanda Holanda Netherlands
Onsa Onza Ounce (unit of measurement)
Opisyal Oficial Official
Otél Hotel Hotel
Pabrika Fábrica Factory Pagawaan
Pamilya Familia Family
Panderetas Panderetas Tambourine
Pantalon Pantalón Pants, trousers
Papél Papel Paper
Paról Farol Star-shaped Christmas lantern
Pasaporte Pasaporte Passport
Pelikula/Penikula Película Movie
Pilduras Pildora Medicinal pill
Pilipinas Filipinas Philippines
Piso Peso Philippine Peso
Porke Porque Because Kasi
Probinsiya/Probinsya Provincia Province Lalawigan
Presidente Presidente President Pangulo
Presko Fresco Fresh Sariwa
Protina Proteina Protein
Pulgada Pulgada Inch (unit of measurement)
Pulisya Policía Police
Pwede/Puwede Puede Can, Could, May, Might Kaya, Maaarì (denotes permission. i.e., more like "may")
Pwera/Puwera[15] Fuera Except (preposition) Maliban sa, Maliban kay
Radyo Radio Radio
Realidad Realidad Reality Katunayan, Katotohanan
Reló, Relos, Rilos Reloj Clock (or any instrument used to track time) Orasán
Repúblika República Republic
Sabadista Sabadista Member of the Seventh-Day Adventist Church
Sapatos Zapatos Shoes
Sardinas Sardinas Sardines (any fish belonging to the family Clupeidae)
Sarado Cerrado Closed Nakapinid
Selyo Sello Seal (the Tagalog "selyo" usually refers to postage stamp) Tatak (also means "brand", "label" and "mark")
Sentimyento (or "senti") Sentimiento To be sentimental
Senyales Señales Signs Tanda
Sikolohiya Psicologia Psychology
Sim Zinc Zinc (Zn)
Simple Simple Simple Payak
Sipilyo Cepillo Brush
Siyudad Ciudad City Lungsod
Sundalo Soldado Soldier Kawal
Sustansya Sustancia Food nutrient
Sustento Sustento Financial support
Sweldo/Suweldo Sueldo Salary Sahod
Tableta Tableta Tablet
Tangke Tanque Tank
Tarheta Tarjeta Card
Tasa Taza Mug, Cup
Teklado Teclado Keyboard Tipaan (usu. for computers)
Tela Tela Cloth, Fabric
Telebisyón Televisión Television
Telepono Teléfono Telephone
Tiya Tía Aunt
Tiyo Tío Uncle
Tsino Chino Chinese Intsík (mildly derogatory), Tsekwa (Filipino slang)
Tsinelas Chinelas Slippers, flip-flops (contrast with bakya which refers to wooden clogs)
Tsismis Chismes Gossip Satsát (also "chatter")
Tumbaga Tumbaga Gold-copper alloy
Unibersidad Universidad University Pamantasan
Welga Huelga Industrial strike
Yelo Hielo Ice
Yeso Yeso Chalk Tisa
Yodo Yodo Iodine (I)

Note that the first syllable of loanwords from Spanish that start with /aw/ are also sometimes pronounced and spelled /o/ (e.g. 'otonomiya' rather than 'awtonomiya') due to the predominance of pronunciation of loanwords from English.

Latin/Spanish[edit]

Tagalog Spanish Latin Meaning Native equivalent
Agila Águila Aquila Eagle Banoy
Ahensya Agéncia Agēns Agency Sangáy, Sukursal
Ambisyoso Ambicioso Ambitiose Ambitious Mapaghangád, Mapangarap
Andar Andar Ambiō To turn on or to start an engine (usually of the car)
Arina Harina Farīna Flour
Arko Arco Arcus Arch Balantók
Armás Armas Arma Arms (Weapon) Sandata
Asno Asno Asinus Donkey
Baka Vaca Vacca Cow
Bakasyón Vacación Vacatio Vacation Magliwaliw (meaning "to do a leisure trip")
Barko Barco Barca Ship Layag
Basura Basura Verrō Garbage/Trash/Waste Kalat, Dumi
Berde Verde Viridis Green Luntian
Bulkán Volcán Vulcānus Volcano
Diperensya Diferencia Differentia Difference Pagkakaibá
Direktor Director Directus Director Tagapangasiwa
Diyós Dios Deus God Bathalâ (via Sanskrit), Panginoón ("Lord") or Maykapal ("Creator")
Ebanghelyo Evangelio Ēvangelium Gospel
Edad Edad Aetate Age Gulang
Edukasyón Educación Ēducātiō Education Pag-aaral
Ehersisyo Ejercicio Exerceō Exercise Galaw, Kilos
Espanya España Hispānia Spain
Estudyante Estudiante Studēns Student Mag-aarál
Pwersa/Puwersa Fuerza Fortis Force Lakás (also translated as "strength", "energy", "vigor", etc.)
Hustisya Justicia Iūstitia Justice Katárungan
Impluwensya/Impluwensiya Influencia Potentiam Influence Lakas, Kapangyarihan
Impyerno/Impiyerno Infierno Infernum Hell
Inutil Inútil Inūtilis Useless, Worthless
Kabalyero Caballero Caballārius Knight
Kabayo Caballo Caballus Horse
Kalbo Calvo Calvus Bald Upaw, Panot, Walang Buhok
Kampana Campana Campana Bell Batingáw (also refers to a gong or any instrument that makes a distinctive sound when stroke)
Kandila Candela Candēla Candle
Karne Carne Carō Meat Lamán ("flesh")
Kasál Casar Casa Marry Pag-iisang-dibdib
Keso Queso Cāseus Cheese
Kutis Cutis Cutis Skin Balat
Kwadrado/Kuwadrado Cuadrado Quadrātus Square Parisukat
Labi Labio Labium Lip
Lenggwahe/Lengguwahe Lenguaje Lingua Language Wika
Libro Libro Librum Book Aklat
Mansanas Manzana Māla Apple (Malus domestica)
Merkado Mercado Mercatus Market/merchant Pamilihan, palengke
Mundó Múndo Mundus World Daigdíg, Sanlibutan
Multa Multa Multa Fine(monetary sum as a penalty)
Museo Museo Museum Museum Tanghalan
Negosyo Negocio Negōtium Business Pangangalakal
Número Número Numerus Number Bilang
Oras Horas Hōra Time, Hour Panahón ("time")
Ordinaryo Ordinario Ordinarius Ordinary Karaniwan
Ospitál Hospital Hospitālis Hospital Pagamútan
Padre Padre Pater Priest Pari
Peligro Peligro Periculum Danger Panganib
Pistá/Piyesta Fiesta Fēstum Feast Kaarawán (lit. "anniversary"; colloquially used mostly for "birthday" from the longer "Kaarawán ng kapanganakan"), Pagdiriwang (Celebration)
Reyna Reina Rēgīna Queen
Sabón Jabón Sāpō Soap
Sebo Sebo Sēbum Grease, Oil, Fat, Lard, Tallow Taba
Selebrasyon Celebracion Celebratio Celebration Pagdiriwang, Pagdaraos, Diwang
Sementeryo Cementerio Caemeterium Cemetery Libingan
Serbesa Cerveza Cervisia Beer
Sereso Cerezo Cerasus Cherry
Saserdote Sacerdote Sacerdōs Priest Pari
Silya Silla Sella Chair Upuan (lit. more general "seat")
Simbolo Simbolo Symbolum Symbol Sagisag
Sinturón Cinturón Cingulum Belt
Siyensya/Siyensiya Ciencia Scientia Science Aghám (via Sanskrit "Agama")
Swerte/Suwerte Suerte Sors Good fortune, good luck Mapalad
Transportasyón Transportación Comportatio Transportation Sasakyan
Triánggulo Triángulo Triangulum Triangle Tilasitha; Tatsulok
Trigo Trigo Trīticum Wheat
Ubas Uvas Uva Grapes
Unibersidad Universidad Ūniversitās University Pamantasan
Yero Hierro Ferrum Iron (the element or material) Bakal

Greek/Spanish[edit]

Tagalog Spanish Greek symbol Greek equivalent Meaning Native equivalent
Angklá Ancla ἄγκυρα Ánkura Anchor Sinipete
Anghel Ángel Αγγελος Ángelos Angel/Messenger Anghel/Sugo
Balyena Ballena φάλλαινα Phállaina Whale Tandayag
Bibliya Biblia βίβλος Bíblos Bible Banal na Kasulatan
Biblyioteka Biblioteca βιβλιοθήκη bibilotheka Library Aklatan
Biyolohiya Biología βίος and λογία bíos and logía Biology
Bodega Bodega ἀποθήκη apothḗkē Storehouse Kamalig, Pintungan
Katoliko Católico καθολικός Katholikós Catholic ('Universal/General')
Kristo Cristo Χριστός Khristós Christ ('The Anointed One'/
'The Messiah')
Kristyano/Kristiyano Cristiano Χριστιανός Khristianós Christian
Eksena Escena σκηνή Skēnḗ Scene Tagpô
Eskuwela/Eskwela Escuela σχολεῖον Skholeîon School Páaralán
Obispo Obispo επίσκοπος Epískopos Bishop
Makina Máquina μηχανή Makhina Machine, Pulley
Parokya Parroquia παροικία Paroikía Community
Selos Celos Ζῆλος Zêlos Jealousy Paninibugho
Teknolohiyá Tecnología τεχνολογία tekhnología Technology

Hebrew/Spanish[edit]

Tagalog Spanish Hebrew symbol Hebrew equivalent Meaning
Hesus Jesús יֵשׁוּעַ Yēšū́aʿ Jesus
Paskó Pascua פסח Pesakh Christmas

Tagalog words derived from pluralized Spanish nouns[edit]

Some of the Spanish loanwords in Tagalog appear in their pluralized form, marked with -s or -es. However, in Tagalog, such words are not considered as plural and when they are pluralized in Tagalog, they need to be pluralized in the way that Tagalog pluralizes native words, i.e., by placing the pluralization marker mga before the word [16]. For example, the word butones (meaning button used in clothing, from Sp. botones) is considered singular in Tagalog and its plural form is mga butones.

Tagalog Word Sapnish-Derived Word Meaning in Spanish Meaning in Tagalog
Alahas Alhaja (plural form: alhajas) Jewel; Jewelry Jewel; Jewelry
Aratiles Dátil (plural form: dátiles) Date (Phoenix dactilyfera) Calabur or Panama cherry (Muntingia calabura)
Armas Arma (plural form: armas) Weapon; Arm Weapon; Arm
Balbas Barba (plural form: barbas) Beard (facial hair) Beard (facial hair)
Banyos Baño (plural form: baños) Bath; Bathroom Sponge bath
Bayabas Guayaba (plural form: guayabas) Guava (Psidium guajava) Guava (Psidium guajava)
Beses Vez (plural form: veces) Time (repetition) Time (repetition)
Boses Voz (plural form: voces) Voice Voice
Butones (var. bitones) Botón (plural form: botones) Button (clothing) Button (clothing)
Datos Dato (plural form: datos) Fact; Detail; Piece of Information; Data Datum/Data
Garbansos Garbanzo (plural form: garbanzos Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) Chickpea (Cicer arietinum)
Gastos Gasto (plural form: gastos) Cost; Expense; Spending Cost; Expense; Spending
Gisantes Guisante (plural form: guisantes) Pea (Pisum sativum) Pea (Pisum sativum)
Guwantes Guante (plural form: guantes) Glove Glove
Kalatas[17] Carta (plural form: cartas) Letter; Chart; Charter Paper; White Paper; Letter; Written Message
Kamatis Tomate (plural form: tomates) Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum)
Kasilyas Casilla (plural form: casillas) Cubicle; Booth Toilet
Kastanyas Castaña (plural form: castañas) Chestnut (Castanea spp.) Chestnut (Castanea spp.)
Kustilyas (var. kostilyas) Costilla (plural form: costillas) Rib Rib
Kuwitis Cohete (plural form: cohetes) Rocket Fireworks
Labanos Rabano (plural form: rabanos) Radish (Raphanus sativus) Radish (Raphanus sativus)
Lansones Lanzón[18] (plural form: lanzones) Phil. Sp. term for Lansium domesticum Langsat or lanzones (Lansium domesticum)
Letsugas Lechuga (plural form: lechugas) Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) Lettuce (Lactuca sativa)
Manggas Manga (plural form: mangas) Sleeve (clothing) Sleeve (clothing)
Mansanas Manzana (plural form: manzanas) Apple (Malus domestica) Apple (Malus domestica)
Medyas Media (plural form: medias) Sock Sock
Oras Hora (plural form: horas) Hour (unit of time) Hour (unit of time); Time
Panderetas Pandereta (plural form: panderetas) Tambourine Tambourine
Palanas[17] Plana (plural form: planas) Plain (geography) Flat area along a river
Papeles Papel (plural form: papeles) Paper Document
Patatas Patata (plural form: patatas) Potato (Solanum tuberosum) Potato (Solanum tuberosum)
Pares (var. paris) Par (plural form: pares) Pair Pair; Similar
Pasas Pasa (plural form: pasas) Raisin Raisin
Pastilyas Pastilla (plural form: pastillas) Pill; Tablet; Candy Sweet milk candy (see Pastillas)
Peras Pera (plural form: peras) Pear (Pyrus spp.) Pear (Pyrus spp.)
Perlas Perla (plural form: perlas) Pearl Pearl
Pilduras Pildora (plural form: pildoras) Pill; Tablet Medicinal pill
Posas Esposa (plural form: esposas) Handcuffs Handcuffs
Presas Presa (plural form: presas) Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa)
Prutas Fruta (plural form: frutas) Fruit Fruit
Pulbos Polvo (plural form: polvos) Dust; powder Powder
Pulseras Pulsera (plural form: pulseras) Bracelet Bracelet
Puntos Punto (plural form: puntos) Dot; Period; Point (sports) Score; Point
Rehas Reja (plural form: rejas) Bar; Railing Bar; Railing
Riles Carril (plural form: carriles) Lane; Track Rail; Railroad; Railway
Rosas Rosa (plural form: rosas) Rose (Rosa spp.) Rose (Rosa spp.); Pink (color)
Sapatos Zapato (plural form: zapatos) Shoe Shoe
Sardinas Sardina (plural form: sardinas) Sardine (Clupeidae) Sardine (Clupeidae)
Senyales Señal (plural form: señales) Sign; Signal Sign
Senyas Seña (plural form: señas) Sign; Signal Sign; Signal
Sibuyas Cebolla (plural form: cebollas) Onion (Allium cepa) Onion (Allium cepa)
Sigarilyas Seguidilla[19] (plural form: seguidillas) Phil. Sp. term for Psophocarpus tetragonolobus Winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus)
Silahis Celaje (plural form: celajes) Cloudscape; Skylight (architecture) Sunray; Bisexual person[20] (slang)
Singkamas Jícama (plural form: jícamas) Mexican turnip (Pachyrhizus erosus) Mexican turnip (Pachyrhizus erosus)
Sintas Cinta (plural form: cintas) Ribbon; Tape; Lace Shoelace
Sintomas Síntoma (plural form: síntomas) Symptom Symptom
Sopas Sopa (plural form: sopas) Soup Soup
Sorbetes Sorbete (plural form: sorbetes) Sorbet Ice cream
Tsinelas Chinela (plural form: chinelas) Slipper; flip-flop Slipper; Flip-flop
Tsismis Chisme (plural form: chismes) Gossip Gossip
Ubas Uva (plural form: uvas) Grape (Vitis spp.) Grape (Vitis spp.)
Uhales Ojal (plural form: ojales) Buttonhole Buttonhole
Uhas Hoja (plural form: hojas) Leaf Sheet metal

Tagalog words derived from Spanish verbs[edit]

Several Spanish verbs are also adopted into Tagalog. Most of them are in their infinitive form characterized by the deletion of their final /r/, like for example in the case of the Tagalog intindi (to understand) derived from the Spanish verb entender[21]. This feature is also found in Chavacano verbs which have a Spanish origin and it can be argued that an already restructured form of Spanish (Chavacano or a pidgin) was the origin of these Tagalog words[22]. A list of these loanwords can be viewed below.

Alternatively, upon adoption into Tagalog, the final /r/ of the Spanish verbs in their infinitive form becomes /l/. Such is the case of the following loanwords: almusal (to have breakfast, from Sp. almorzar), dasal (from Sp. rezar), kasal (from Sp. casar), kumpisal (from Sp. confesar), minindal (from Sp. merendar), pasyal (from Sp. pasear) and sugal (from Sp. jugar). In some cases, the Tagalog form is phonetically unassimilated like in the case of andar (to set in action or motion; from Sp. andar).

Conjugated Spanish verbs are also adopted into Tagalog. Examples include: kúha (from Sp. coger), pára (from Sp. parar), pása (from Sp. pasar), puwede (from Sp. poder), tíra (from Sp. tirar) and sige (from Sp. seguir). Imbiyerna (meaning to annoy or to irritate someone) is derived from the Spanish verb infernar (meaning to irritate or to provoke) and was allegedly coined by Ricardo "Rikki" Dalu, originally to describe the hellish feeling and the frustration he experienced when attending Spanish classes[23]. In some cases, the conjugated verbs are combined with another word to form Tagalog morphemes like in the case of the following words: asikaso (from the combination of Sp. hacer and Sp. caso), balewala or baliwala (from the combination of Sp. valer and Tag. wala), etsapwera (from the combination of Sp. echar and Sp. fuera) and kumusta (from the combination of Sp. cómo and Sp. estar).

Tagalog Verb Spanish Verb Meaning in Spanish Meaning in Tagalog
Akusá Acusar To accuse To accuse
Alsá Alzar To lift; to raise; to erect To rise in rebellion
Analisá Analizar To analyze To analyze
Apelá Apelar To appeal To appeal
Aprobá Aprobar To approve To approve
Apurá Apurar To finish; to rush (Lat. Am.) To hurry
Arkilá (var. alkilá) Alquilar To rent; to rent out To rent; to rent out
Asintá Asentar To set up; to secure; to lay down To aim at
Aturgá Otorgar To grant; to bestow; to confer To take on responsibility
Bará Barrar To cover in mud To block; to clog
Batí Batir To beat; to whisk; to whip To beat; to whisk; to whip; to masturbate (vulgar)
Beripiká Verificar To verify To verify
Bulkanisá Vulcanizar To vulcanize To vulcanize
Burá Borrar To erase To erase
Burdá Bordar To embroider To embroider
Deklará Declarar To declare To declare
Determiná Determinar To determine To determine
Diktá Dictar To dictate To dictate
Dimití Dimitir To resign To resign
Dirihí Dirigir To manage; to be in charge of To manage; to be in charge of
Disaprobá Disaprobar To disapprove To disapprove
Disarmá Desarmar To disarm To disarm
Disimpektá Desinfectar To disinfect To disinfect
Disimulá Disimular To conceal; to cover up To conceal; to cover up
Diskargá Descargar To unload; to discharge; to download To unload
Diskitá Desquitar To make up for To take it out on
Diskubré Descubrir To discover To discover
Dismayá Desmayar To become disheartened; to become demoralized To become disheartened; to become demoralized
Distrungká Destroncar To hack away To forcefully open a door, a lock, etc.
Galbanisá Galvanizar To galvanize To galvanize
Gisá Guisar To stew To stir fry in oil, usually with garlic and onions
Hulmá Ahormar To shape; to mould To shape; to mould
Husgá Juzgar To judge To judge
Imbestigá Investigar To investigate To investigate
Imbitá Invitar To invite To invite
Intindí Entender To understand To understand
Itsá Echar To throw To throw
Kalkulá Calcular To calculate To calculate
Kanselá Cancelar To cancel To cancel
Kantá Cantar To sing To sing
Kargá Cargar To load; to charge; to fill To load; to charge; to fill
Kodipiká Codificar To codify; to encode To codify; to encode
Kondená Condenar To condemn To condemn
Konserbá Conservar To conserve To conserve
Konsiderá Considerar To consider To consider
Kublí Cubrir To cover; to cover up To hide from sight
Kubrá Cobrar To demand or to receive payment To demand or to receive payment
Kulá Colar To strain; to bleach To bleach
Kultí Curtir To tan To treat leather or other materials with tanning agents (e.g. tannin)
Kumbidá Convidar To invite To invite
Kumbinsí Convencir To convince To convince
Kumpará Comparar To compare To compare
Kumpirmá Confirmar To confirm To confirm
Kumpiská Confiscar To confiscate; to seize To confiscate; to seize
Kumpuní Componer To make up; to compose; to repair To repair
Labá Lavar To wash To wash
Legalisá Legalizar To legalize To legalize
Liberalisá Liberalizar To liberalize To liberalize
Manipulá Manipular To manipulate To manipulate
Marká Marcar To mark To mark
Nominá Nominar To nominate To nominate
Obligá Obligar To force; to oblige To force; to oblige
Obserbá Observar To observe To observe
Operá Operar To operate To surgically operate
Otorisá (var. awtorisá) Autorizar To authorize To authorize
Palsipiká Falsificar To falsify To falsify
Palyá Fallar To fail; to break down and stop working To fail; to break down and stop working
Pasá Pasar To pass; to happen; to go through To pass an academic course, an examination, an interview, etc.
Pasmá[24] Pasmar To amaze; to astonish; to chill to the bone Pasma (folk illness characterized by hand tremors, numbness, localized pain and fever), and, by extension, to have or to experience pasma
Pintá Pintar To paint To paint
Pirmá Firmar To sign To sign
Pormalisá Formalizar To formalize To formalize
Prepará Preparar To prepare To prepare
Preserbá Preservar To preserve To preserve
Proklamá Proclamar To proclaim To proclaim
Pundí Fundir To melt; to merge To burn out
Puntá Apuntar To aim; to point out; to write down To go to
Purgá Purgar To purge To cleanse; to take a purgative or laxative
Pursigí Perseguir To pursue; to follow; to chase; to persecute To persevere
Ratipiká Ratificar To ratify To ratify
Reboká Revocar To revoke To revoke
Rekomendá Recomendar To recommend To recommend
Repiná Refinar To refine To refine
Sangkutsá Sancochar or Salcochar To boil with water and salt To pre-cook food with spices and aromatics
Salbá Salvar To save To save
Sará Cerrar To close To close
Silbí Servir To serve To serve
Sindí Encender To ignite; to turn on; to switch on To ignite; to turn on; to switch on
Sulsí Zurcir To sew; to mend To sew; to mend
Sumité Someter To subdue; to subjugate; to submit To submit; to put forward
Suspindí Suspendir To suspend To suspend
Tahí Tejer To sew; to mend To sew; to mend
Tantsá (var. tantiyá) Tantear To feel; to weigh up; to estimate To estimate
Tarantá Atarantar To stun; to daze; to stupify To confuse; to baffle; to bewilder
Tasá Tajar To chop; to cut; to slice To sharpen
Timplá Templar To cool down; to moderate To blend; to mix; to prepare drinks, medicine, chemical solutions, etc.
Tumbá Tumbar To knock down To knock down
Tustá Tostar To toast To toast
Umpisá Empezar To begin; to start To begin; to start

English[edit]

English has been used in everyday Tagalog conversation. This kind of conversation is called Taglish. English words borrowed by Tagalog are mostly modern and technical terms, but English words are also used for short usage (many Tagalog words translated from English are very long) or to avoid literal translation and repetition of the same particular Tagalog word. English makes the second largest vocabulary of Tagalog after Spanish. In written language, English words in a Tagalog sentence are written as they are, but they are sometimes written in Tagalog phonetic spelling. Here are some examples:

Tagalog English Traditional Word(s)
Adik Drug addict Durugista
Adyenda Agenda
Bag Bag Supot
Bakwit Evacuate Lumikas
Barbikyu Barbecue
Basketbol Basketball
Beysbol Baseball
Bilyar Billiard
Biskwit Biscuit
Bistek Beef steak
Bodabíl Vaudeville
Boksing Boxing
Bolpen Ballpoint pen
Drayber Driver Tsuper
Dyaket Jacket
Dyakpat Jackpot
Dyip/Dyipni Jeep/Jeepney
Dyus Juice Katas
Gadyet Gadget
Gradweyt Graduate Nakapagtapos ng pag-aaral
Hayskul High school Paaralang sekundarya
Helikopter Helicopter
Interbyu Interview Panayam, Entrebista
Internet Internet
Iskedyul Schedule Talaorasan
Iskolar Scholar
Iskor Score Puntos (Sp. Punto)
Iskul School Paaralan
Iskrip Script
Iskrin Screen Tábing
Iskuter Scooter
Iskuwater/Iskwater Squatter
Ispayral Spiral Balisungsong
Ispiker Speaker (person) Tagapagsalita, Tagatalumpati, Mananalumpati
Isponsor Sponsor Tagatangkilik
Isport Sport Palaro, Palakasan, Paligsahan (also translates as "contest" or "tournament")
Isprey Spray Wisik
Istandard Standard Pamantayan, Panukatan
Kabinet Cabinet Aparador (Sp.)
Kalkyuleytor Calculator Kalkulador (Sp.)
Kambas Canvass
Kapirayt Copyright Karapatang-ari
Karot Carrot Asinorya, Asanorya
Kemikál Chemical
Kendi Candy Minatamis (Eng. "sweets")
Ketsap Ketchup Sarsa
Keyk Cake
Kompyuter Computer
Korek Correct Ayos, Tama, Tumpak
Kyut Cute Lindo(m) & Linda(f) (Sp.)
Lider Leader Pinuno
Lobat[25] Low battery
Madyik Magic Salamangka
Magasin Magazine
Miskol[25] Missed call
Miting Meeting Pulong
Nars Nurse
Okey OK, Okay Sige
Plastik Plastic
Pulis Police
Rali Rally
Sanwits Sandwich
Tambay Stand by
Tenis Tennis
Tibak T-back
Titser Teacher Guro (Sansk. "guru"), Maestro(m) & Maestra(f)(Sp.)
Tisyu Tissue
Traysikel Tricycle Trisiklo
Trey Tray
Wais Wise Mautak, Maabilidad

Many Malay loanwords entered the Tagalog vocabulary during pre-colonial times as Old Malay became the lingua franca of trade, commerce and diplomatic relations during the pre-colonial era of Philippine history as evidenced by the Laguna Copperplate Inscription of 900 AD and accounts of Pigafetta at the time of the Spanish arrival in the country five centuries later.

Tagalog Etymology Meaning in Tagalog
Balaklaot[26] barat laut (Malay, meaning northwest) Northwestern winds
Batubalani[27] batu (Malay and Tagalog, meaning stone) + berani (Malay, meaning brave) Magnetite; Magnet stone
Bibingka[28] kuih bingka (Malay, referring to tapioca or cassava cake) Rice cake with coconut milk
Binibini[29] bini (Malay, meaning wife) Miss; Young lady
Bunso[30] bongsu (Malay, meaning youngest-born) Youngest child
Dalamhati dalam (Malay, meaning within) + hati (Malay, meaning liver) Grief
Dalub-agham juru (Malay, meaning expert) + agham (Tagalog, meaning science) Science expert; Scientist
Dalubguro juru (Malay, meaning expert) + guru (Malay, meaning teacher) Professor emeritus
Dalubhasa juru (Malay, meaning expert) + bahasa (Malay, meaning language) Expert (in general)
Dalubsining juru (Malay, meaning expert) + sining (Tagalog, meaning art) Art critic; Art expert
Dalubturo juru (Malay, meaning expert) + turo (Tagalog, meaning to teach) Teaching expert
Dalubwika juru (Malay, meaning expert) + wika (Tagalog, meaning language) Linguist
Hatol[31] atur (Malay, meaning order or arrangement Sentence pronounced by a judge in court
Kanan[32] kanan (Malay, meaning right) Right
Kulambo[33] kelambu (Malay, meaning mosquito net) Mosquito net
Lunggati lung (Tagalog root word meaning grief[34]) + hati (Malay, meaning liver) Eagerness; Ambition
Luwalhati luwal (Tagalog, meaning outside) + hati (Malay, meaning liver) Inner peace
Uluhati ulo (Tagalog, meaning head) + hati (Malay, meaning liver) Remembrance; Reminiscence
Pighati pedih (Malay, meaning pain) + hati (Malay, meaning liver) Affliction; Anguish; Woe
Pirali[35] pijar (Malay, meaning borax) Calcium carbonate
Salaghati salag or salak (Tagalog, meaning full and levelled) + hati (Malay, meaning liver) Displeasure; Resentment
Tanghali tengah (Malay, meaning half) + hari (Malay, meaning day) Noon; Midday
Tiyanak[36] puntianak (Malay, referring to a vampire, ghost or reanimated body supposed to suck blood) Vampiric creature that imitates the form of a child
Usap[37] ucap (Malay, meaning utterance) Conversation

Sanskrit[edit]

See also: Indian cultural influences in early Philippine polities

As in most Austronesian languages, the Sanskrit vocabulary incorporated into Tagalog are mostly borrowed indirectly via Malay or Javanese.[38] Examples include:

Tagalog Sanskrit Meaning in Tagalog
Agham Āgama (आगम), meaning acquisition of knowledge, science Science
Antala Antara (अन्तर), meaning duration, gap Delay
Asal Ācāra (आचार), meaning manner of action, conduct, behavior Behaviour; Character
Bagyo Vāyu (वायु), meaning wind Typhoon
Bahala Bhara (भार), meaning burden, load, weight, heavy work To manage; to take care of; to take charge
Balita Vārtā (वार्ता), meaning account, report News
Bansa Vaṃśa (वंश), meaning bamboo cane, genealogy, dynasty, race, Country
Banyaga Vaṇijaka (वणिजक), meaning merchant, trader Foreigner
Basa Vaca (वच), meaning voice, speech To read
Bathalà Batthara (भट्टार), meaning noble lord, venerable Supreme Being; God
Bihasa Abhyasa (अभ्यास), meaning habit Accustomed
Budhi Bodhi (बोधि), meaning understanding Conscience
Dala Dhara (धर), meaning bearing, supporting To carry; to bring
Dawa[39] Yava (यव), meaning Hordeum vulgare Panicum miliaceum
Daya Dvaya (द्वय), meaning twofold nature, falsehood Cheating; Deception
Dila Lidha (लीढ), meaning licked, tasted, eaten Tongue
Diwa Jīva (जीव), meaning the principle of life, vital breath Spirit; Soul
Diwata Devata (देवता), meaning divinity Fairy, Goddess, Nymph
Dukha Dukkha (दुःख),meaning sorrow, misery, hardship Poverty
Dusa Doṣa (दोष), meaning harm, damage, bad consequence Suffering
Dusta Dūṣita (दूषित), meaning defiled, violated, injured Ignominiously insulted
Gadya Gaja (गज), meaning elephant Elephant
Guro Guru (गुरु), meaning master, teacher Mentor; Teacher
Halaga Argha (अर्घ), meaning value Price; Value
Halata Arthaya (अर्थय), meaning perceive Noticeable; Perceptible; Obvious
Kasubha Kusumbha (कुसुम्भ), meaning Carthamus tinctorius Carthamus tinctorius
Kastuli Kastūrī (कस्तूरी), meaning Abelmoschus moschatus Abelmoschus moschatus
Katha Kathā (कथा), meaning a feigned story, fable Literary composition; Fiction; Invention
Kalapati; Palapati Pārāpataḥ (पारापत), meaning pigeon Pigeon
Kuba Kubja (कुब्ज), meaning hunchback Hunchback
Kuta Kota (कोट), meaning fort, stronghold Fort
Ladya Raja (राज), meaning king, chief, sovereign Raja
Lagundi Nirgundi (निर्गुण्डि), meaning Vitex negundo Vitex negundo
Laho Rāhu (राहु), meaning eclipse Eclipse,; to vanish
Lasa Rasa (रस), meaning taste, savour Taste
Lathala Yantrālaya (यन्त्रालय), meaning printing office, press To print
Likha Lekhā (लेखा), meaning drawing, figure To create
Lisa Likṣā (लिक्षा), meaning egg of a louse Egg of a louse
Madla Mandala (मण्डल), meaning circle, multitude The general public
Maharlika Maharddhika (महर्द्धिक), meaning prosperous Nobility; Prehispanic Tagalog social class composed of freedmen
Mukha Mukha (मुख), meaning face Face
Mula Mula (मूल), meaning basis, foundation, origin, beginning From; since; origin
Mutya Mutya (मुत्य), meaning pearl Amulet; Charm; Jewel; Pearl
Palakol Paraśu (परशु), meaning axe Axe
Palibhasa Paribhasa (परिभाषा), meaning speech, censure, reproof Irony; Sarcasm; Criticism
Pana Bana (बाण), meaning arrow Arrow
Parusa Pūruṣaghna (पूरुषघ्न), meaning slaying men Punishment
Patola Patola (पटोल), meaning Trichosanthes dioica Luffa acutangula
Puti Puti (पूति), meaning purity, purification White
Saksí Sākṣin (साक्षिन्), meaning eye-witness Witness
Sakuna Zakuna (शकुन), meaning a bird of omen Disaster
Salamuha Samuha (समूह), meaning gathering, crowd To mingle with people
Salanta Randa (रण्ड), meaning maimed, crippled Infirm
Salita Carita (चरित), meaning behaviour, acts, deeds, adventures To speak; to talk; word
Samantala Samantara (समान्तर), meaning parallel Meanwhile
Sampalataya Sampratyaya (सम्प्रत्यय), meaning trust, confidence Faith
Sigla Sīghra (शीघ्र), meaning swift, quick, speedy Enthusiasm; Vitality
Suka Cukra (चुक्र), meaning vinegar Vinegar
Sutla Sūtra (सूत्र), meaning thread, string, wire Silk
Tala Tāra (तार), meaning star Star
Tama Uttama (उत्तम), meaning uppermost, most elevated, best, excellent Correct
Tanikala Sṛṅkhala (शृङ्खल), meaning chain Chain
Tingga Tivra (तीव्र), meaning tin, iron, steel Tin
Tsampaka Campaka (चम्पक), meaning Magnolia champaca Magnolia champaca
Upang Upa (उप), meaning towards, near to So as to, in order to

Examples:

Arabic and Persian[edit]

Examples:

Tagalog Arabic Meaning
Alam Alham Knowledge, Understanding
Hiya Hayaa To feel shame, Blush
Hukom Hukum Judge
Salamat Slamah Thanks

Chinese[edit]

See also: Philippine Hokkien

Many of the Chinese loanwords in Tagalog are derived from Hokkien, the Southern Chinese variety spoken in the Philippines. Most of the 163 Hokkien-derived terms collected and analyzed by Gloria Chan-Yap are fairly recent and do not appear in the earliest Spanish dictionaries of Tagalog[40]. Many of the Hokkien-derived loanwords like pancit[41] entered the Tagalog vocabulary during the Spanish colonial era when the Philippines experienced an increased influx of Chinese immigrants (mostly from the provinces of Fujian and Guangdong in Southern China[42]) as Manila became an international entrepôt with the flourishing of the Manila-Acapulco Galleon Trade[43][44]. Attractive economic opportunities boosted Chinese immigration to Spanish Manila and the new Chinese settlers brought with them their skills, culinary traditions and language, with the latter then influencing the native languages of the Philippines in the form of loanwords, most of which are related to cookery[45][46]. On the other hand, only few of the Chinese loanwords are derived from Mandarin and not from Hokkien, such as apyan (opium, from Chinese 鴉片/yāpiàn), betsin (monosodium glutamate, from Chinese 味精/wèi-jīng), ginto (gold, from Chinese 金條/jīn-tiáo), pisaw (small knife, from Chinese 匕首/bǐ-shǒu) and sampan (Chinese junk, from Chinese 舢板/shān-bǎn)[40].

Tagalog Hokkien (H)and Mandarin (M)Meaning in Hokkienor MandarinMeaning in Tagalog
Apyan 鴉片/yāpiàn (M) Opium Opium
Ate 阿姊/á–cì (H) Appellation for elder sister Appellation for elder sister
Bakya 木屐/ba̍k-kia̍h (H) Wooden clogs Wooden clogs
Bataw 扁豆/pà-taŭ (H) Hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus) Hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus)
Batsoy 肉水/bà-cuì (H) Dish with loin of pork as main ingredient Batchoy
Bihon 米粉/bî-hún (H) Rice vermicelli Rice vermicelli
Biko 米糕/bí-kō (H) Sweetened rice cake Sweetened rice cake
Bimpo[47] 面布/bīn-pǒ (H) Face towel Face towel
Betsin 味精/wèi-jīng (M) Monosodium glutamate Monosodium glutamate
Buwisit[48] 無衣食/bō-uî-sít (H) Without clothes or food Nuisance
Diko 二哥/dī-kô (H) Appellation for second eldest brother Appellation for second eldest brother
Ditse 二姊/dī–cì (H) Appellation for second eldest sister Appellation for second eldest sister
Ginto[49] 金條/jīn-tiáo (M) Gold bar Gold (Au)
Hikaw 耳鉤/hī–kaû (H) Earrings Earrings
Hopya 好餅/hō-pià (H) Sweet mung bean cake Sweet mung bean cake
Hukbo 服務/hôk-bū (H) Service Army
Husi 富絲/hù-si (H) Quality cotton Cloth made from pineapple fibre
Huwepe 火把/huè-pĕ (H) Torch Torch
Huweteng 花檔/huê-tĕng (H) Jueteng Jueteng
Ingkong 阿公/án-kông (H) Grandfather Grandfather
Kintsay 芹菜/khîn-chaĭ (H) Celery (Apium graveolens) Celery (Apium graveolens)
Kutsay 韭菜/khû-chaĭ (H) Chinese chives (Allium ramosum) Chinese chives (Allium ramosum)
Kusot 鋸屑/kù-sùt (H) Sawdust Sawdust
Kuya 哥亜/kò–ă (H) Appellation for elder brother Appellation for elder brother
Lawin 老鷹/laū-yêng (H) Any bird belonging to Accipitridae or Falconidae Any bird belonging to Accipitridae or Falconidae
Lithaw[50] 犁頭/lé-thaú (H) Plough Ploughshare
Lumpia 潤餅/lûn-pià (H) Fried or fresh spring rolls Fried or fresh spring rolls
Mami 肉麵/mà-mĭ (H) Meat and noodles in soup Meat and noodles in soup
Pansit 便食/piān-ê-sít (H) Dish that is conveniently cooked i.e. noodle dish Pancit
Pakyaw 縛繳/pák-kiaù (H) Wholesale buying Wholesale buying
Petsay[51] 白菜/pē-chaĭ (H) Napa cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis) Napa cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis)
Pesa 白煠魚/pē-sà-hí (H) Plain boiled fish Plain boiled fish
Pinse 硼砂/piên-sē (H) Borax Borax
Pisaw 匕首/bǐ-shǒu (M) Dagger Small knife
Puntaw 糞斗/pùn-taù (H) Dustpan Dustpan
Puthaw[52] 斧頭/pú-thâu (H) Axe Hatchet; Small axe
Sampan 舢板/shān-bǎn (M) Chinese boat; Chinese junk Chinese boat; Chinese junk
Sangko 三哥/sâ-kô (H) Appellation for third eldest brother Appellation for third eldest brother
Sanse 三姊/sâ–cì (H) Appellation for third eldest sister Appellation for third eldest sister
Sitaw 青豆/chî-taŭ (H) Chinese long bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) Chinese long bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis)
Siyansi 煎匙/chian-sî (H) Kitchen turner Kitchen turner
Sotanghon 苏冬粉/suā-tâng-hùn (H) Cellophane noodles Cellophane noodles
Suki 主客/chù–khè (H) Important costumer Regular customer; Patron
Sungki[47] 伸牙/chûn-khì (H) Protruding tooth Buck tooth
Susi 鎖匙/só–sî (H) Key Key
Suwahe 沙蝦/suā-hé (H) Greasyback shrimp (Metapenaeus ensis) Greasyback shrimp (Metapenaeus ensis)
Syokoy (var. siyokoy) 水鬼/cuí-kuì (H) Water spirit; Water devil Merman
Syomay (var. siyomay) 燒賣/siō-maĭ (H) Steamed dumpling Steamed dumpling
Syopaw (var. siyopaw) 燒包/siō-paŭ (H) Meat-filled steamed bun Meat-filled steamed bun
Taho 豆花/taū-hû (H) Tofu Taho
Tahure (var. tahuri) 豆花/taū-hû (H) Tofu Fermented tofu in soy sauce
Tanglaw 燈籠/tiêng-laú (H) Lamp; Lantern Light
Tanso 銅索/táng-sò (H) Copper wire Copper (Cu), Bronze
Tawsi 豆豉/tāu-si (H) Beans preserved in soy sauce Beans preserved in soy sauce
Timsim 灯心/tiêng-sîm (H) Lampwick Lampwick
Tinghoy 燈火/tiêng-huè (H) Wick lamp Wick lamp in glass filled with oil
Tikoy 甜粿/tî–kè (H) Sweetened rice cake Sweetened rice cake
Tokwa 豆干/taū-kuâ (H) Tofu Tofu
Totso 豆油醋魚/taū-iū-chò-hí (H) Fish cooked in soy sauce and vinegar Sautéed fish with tahure
Toyo 豆油/tāu–iû (H) Soy sauce Soy sauce
Tsaa 茶/chá (M) Tea Tea
Upo 瓠瓜/ō-pú (H) Bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) Bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria)
Utaw 黑豆/ō-taŭ (H) Soybean (Glycine max) Soybean (Glycine max)
Wansoy (var. unsoy, yansoy) 芫荽/iān-suî (H) Cilantro (Coriandrum sativum) Cilantro (Coriandrum sativum)

Japanese[edit]

There are very few Tagalog words that are derived from Japanese[53]. Many of them are introduced as recently as the twentieth century like tansan[54] (bottle cap, from the Japanese 炭酸 which originally means refers to soda and carbonated drinks) and karaoke (from the Japanese カラオケ, literally means "empty orchestra") although there are very few Japanese words that appear in the earliest Spanish dictionaries of Tagalog such as katana (Japanese sword, from the Japanese かたな with the same meaning).

Tagalog Japanese Meaning in Japanese Meaning in Tagalog
Bonsay 盆栽 (bonsai) Bonsai; miniature potted plant (slang) Short in height[55]​[56]; bonsai; miniature potted plant
Dorobo 泥棒 (dorobō) Thief; burglar; robber Thief; burglar; robber
Jak-en-poy[57] じゃん拳ぽん (jankenpon) Rock–paper–scissors game Rock–paper–scissors game
Kampay 乾杯 (kanpai) Cheers Cheers
Karaoke カラオケ (karaoke) Karaoke (singing to taped accompaniment) Karaoke (singing to taped accompaniment)
Karate 空手 (karate) Karate Karate
Katana 刀 (katana) Katana; a Japanese sword Katana; a Japanese sword
Katol 蚊取り線香 (katorisenkō) Mosquito coil; anti-mosquito incense Mosquito coil; anti-mosquito incense
Kimona 着物 (kimono) Kimono (or other trad. Japanese clothing) Traditional Philippine blouse made of piña or jusi
Kirey 奇麗 (kirei) Pretty; lovely; beautiful; fair (slang) Pretty; lovely; beautiful; fair
Kokang 交換 (kōkan) Exchange; interchange (slang) Exchange; interchange
Pampan ぱんぱん (panpan) (slang) Prostitute (esp. just after WWII) (slang) Prostitute
Syabu[58] (var. shabu) シャブ (shabu) (slang) Methamphetamine hydrochloride Methamphetamine hydrochloride
Taksan-taksan 沢山 (takusan) Much; many (slang) Much; many
Tansan 炭酸 (tansan) Carbonated water Bottle cap
Tsunami 津波 (tsunami) Tsunami; tidal wave Tsunami; tidal wave
Yasuwi 暑い (atsui) (Of weather) hot; warm; sultry; heated (slang) Sexually attractive

Nahuatl[edit]

Tagalog gained Nahuatl words through Spanish from the Galleon trade with Mexico during the Hispanic era.[59]

Here are some examples:

Tagalog Word Nahuatl Root Word Spanish Word Meaning and Further Comments
Abokado Ahuacatl Aguacate Persea americana
Akapulko, Kapurko Acatl ("cane") + poloa ("large") + co ("place") Acapulco Senna alata
Alpasotis, Pasotis Epatl + Tzotl Epazote Chenopodium ambrosioides
Atsuete, Atsuwete, Atswete Achiotl Achiote Bixa orellana and the red-orange condiment and food coloring derived from its seeds.
Guwatsinanggo Cuauchilnacatl Guachinango Astute
Kakaw Cacáhuatl Cacao Theobroma cacao
Kakawati, Kakawate Cacáhuatl Cacahuete Gliricidia sepium
Kalatsutsi Cacálotl + Xóchitl ("flower) Cacalosúchil Plumeria rubra
Kamatis Tomatl Tomate Solanum lycopersicum
Kamatsile Cuamóchitl Guamúchil Pithecellobium dulce
Kamote Camotli Camote Ipomoea batatas
Koyote Coyotl Coyote Coyote
Kulitis Quilitl Quelite Amaranthus viridis
Mekate Mecatl Mecate Rope or cord made out of abaca
Mehiko Mexitli Mexico Mexico
Nanay[60] Nantli Nana Mother
Paruparo[61][59] Papalotl Papalote Butterfly
Pitaka Petlacalli Petaca Coin purse
Sakate Zacatl Zacate Hay or grass for fodder
Sangkaka Chiancaca Chancaca Taffy (candy)
Sapote Tzapotl Zapote Pouteria sapota
Sayote Chayotli Chayote Sechium edule
Sili Chīlli Chile Chili pepper
Singkamas Xicamatl Jicama Pachyrhizus erosus
Sisiwa Chichiua Chichigua Wet nurse
Tamales Tamalli Tamal Rice-based tamales wrapped in banana leaves or corn husks
Tatay[60] Tahtli Tata Father
Tisa Tizatl Tiza Chalk
Tiyangge Tianquiztli Tianguis Seasonal markets
Tsiklet Chictli Chicle Chewing gum
Tsiko Tzicozapotl Chicozapote Manilkara zapota
Tsokolate Xocolatl Chocolate Chocolate
Tukayo, Katukayo Tocayotia Tocayo Namesake

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Mexico, our older sister". Manila Bulletin News. Retrieved 2018-04-13.
  2. ^ Thompson, Roger M. (2003). Filipino, English and Taglish - Language switching from multiple perspectives.
  3. ^ "Ebolusyon ng Alpabetong Filipino". Retrieved 2010-06-22.
  4. ^ a b c Forastieri Braschi, Eduardo; Cardona, Julia; López Morales, Humberto. Estudios de lingüística hispánica : homenaje a María Vaquero.
  5. ^ a b Quilis, Antonio; Casado-Fresnillo, Celia. La lengua española en Filipinas. Historia. Situación actual. El chabacano. Antología de textos.
  6. ^ Alcantara y Antonio, Teresita. Mga hispanismo sa Filipino: batay sa komunikasyong pangmadla ng Filipinas : pag-aaral lingguwistiko. Diliman, Quezon City : Sentro ng Wikang Filipino, Unibersidad ng Pilipinas. ISBN 9718781773.
  7. ^ Lopez, Cecilio (1 January 1965). "The Spanish overlay in Tagalog". Lingua. 14: 481. doi:10.1016/0024-3841(65)90058-6. ISSN 0024-3841.
  8. ^ "ACD - Austronesian Comparative Dictionary - Loans - d". www.trussel2.com. Apparently a phonologically modified borrowing of Spanish tinta ‘dye’.
  9. ^ a b c Potet, Jean-Paul G. Tagalog Borrowings and Cognates. lulu.com. ISBN 1326615793.
  10. ^ Potet, Jean-Paul G. (2016). Tagalog Borrowings and Cognates. Lulu.com. pp. 318–319. ISBN 9781326615796.
  11. ^ Alcantara y Antonio, Teresita (1999). Mga hispanismo sa Filipino: batay sa komunikasyong pangmadla ng Filipinas : pag-aaral lingguwistiko. Sentro ng Wikang Filipino, Unibersidad ng Pilipinas. p. 86. ISBN 9789718781777.
  12. ^ K, Lim T. (2012). Edible Medicinal and Non-Medicinal Plants: Volume 1, Fruits. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 472. ISBN 9789048186617.
  13. ^ "Common Names Summary - Lactarius lactarius". www.fishbase.de. Remarks: Also spelled 'Algudon'. 'algodon' borrowed from Spanish 'algodón', i.e., cotton.
  14. ^ Schachter, Paul; Otanes, Fe T. (1983). Tagalog Reference Grammar (in Tagalog). University of California Press. p. 514. ISBN 9780520049437.
  15. ^ Vos, Frederik and Fiona De. "Tagalog Pwera sa, Maliban sa". learningtagalog.com.
  16. ^ Bundang, Rebekah (1997). "Spanish Loanwords in Tagalog". p. 10.
  17. ^ a b Potet, Jean-Paul G. (2013). Arabic and Persian Loanwords in Tagalog. Lulu.com. p. 204. ISBN 9781291457261.
  18. ^ Blanco, Manuel (1837). Flora de Filipinas: según el sistema sexual de Linneo (in Spanish). en la imprenta de Sto. Thomas, por Candido Lopez. p. 326. El fruto del lanzón cultivado, no deja ser sabroso: su corteza despide una leche pegajosa, y las semillas son verdes y amargas. Es conocido de todos en las Islas; pero ignoro si la palabra lanzones ó lansones es extranjera ó del país: ella tiene semejanza con lasona, que es cebolla
  19. ^ Penido, Miguel Colmeiro y (1871). Diccionario de los diversos nombres vulgares de muchas plantas usuales ó notables del antiguo y nuevo mundo, con la correspondencia científica y la indicacion abreviada de los unos é igualmente de la familia á que pertenece cada planta (in Spanish). G. Alhambra. p. 173.
  20. ^ Garcia, J. Neil C (2008). Philippine gay culture: binabae to bakla, silahis to MSM. University of the Philippines Press. p. 134. ISBN 9789715425773. It roughly translates to "bisexual", although as with bakla, the cultural marker of this particular variety of sexual being is mostly not sexuality per se, but predictably enough, gender: the silahis is a male who looks every bit like a "real man" - he may even be married and with a family - but who, in all this time, would rather swish and wear skirts and scream "like a woman".
  21. ^ Lopez, Cecilio (1 January 1965). "The Spanish overlay in Tagalog". Lingua. 14: 477. doi:10.1016/0024-3841(65)90058-6. ISSN 0024-3841.
  22. ^ Stolz, Thomas; Bakker, Dik; Salas Palomo, Rosa (2008). Hispanisation: the impact of Spanish on the lexicon and grammar of the indigenous languages of Austronesia and the Americas. Mouton de Gruyter. p. 209. ISBN 9783110207231.
  23. ^ Cariño, Linda Grace. "How Swardspeak was born, truly-ly! | Philstar.com". philstar.com.
  24. ^ Bello, Walden F.; Guzman, Alfonso de (1971). Modernization: Its Impact in the Philippines. Ateneo de Manila University Press. p. 39. The state of the body A, together with the state of nature B, leads to disorder X; e.g., hunger together with getting wet causes pasmá (< Spanish pasmar 'to astonish, to cause spasms').
  25. ^ a b Sawikaan 2007: Mga Salita ng Taon. 2008. ISBN 9789715425834.
  26. ^ Baklanova, Ekaterina (20 March 2017). "Types of Borrowings in Tagalog/Filipino". Kritika Kultura. 0 (28): 42. doi:10.13185/KK2017.02803. ISSN 1656-152X.
  27. ^ POTET, Jean-Paul G. (2018). Ancient Beliefs and Customs of the Tagalogs. Lulu.com. p. 214. ISBN 9780244348731.
  28. ^ "ACD - Austronesian Comparative Dictionary - Loans - c". www.trussel2.com. Borrowing, most likely from Malay. Under this hypothesis the consistent partial reduplication in Philippine forms is unexplained, but no borrowing hypothesis in the other direction appears plausible.
  29. ^ Hall, D. G. E; Cowan, C. D; Wolters, O. W (1976). Southeast Asian history and historiography: essays presented to D.G.E. Hall. Cornell University Press. p. 353. ISBN 0801408415.
  30. ^ "ACD - Austronesian Comparative Dictionary - Loans - c". www.trussel2.com. Borrowing from Malay.
  31. ^ "ACD - Austronesian Comparative Dictionary - Loans - o". www.trussel2.com.
  32. ^ Baklanova, Ekaterina (20 March 2017). "Types of Borrowings in Tagalog/Filipino". Kritika Kultura. 0 (28): 37. doi:10.13185/KK2017.02803. ISSN 1656-152X. Mal. /kanan/ (< ka-wanan) [Wolff 1976]
  33. ^ "ACD - Austronesian Comparative Dictionary - Loans - m". www.trussel2.com. Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed kulambu ‘curtain’.
  34. ^ POTET, Jean-Paul G. (2016). Tagalog Borrowings and Cognates. Lulu.com. p. 88. ISBN 9781326615796.
  35. ^ "ACD - Austronesian Comparative Dictionary - Loans - m". www.trussel2.com. Also Balinese pijar ‘borax, solder’. Borrowing from Malay.
  36. ^ "ACD - Austronesian Comparative Dictionary - Loans - g". www.trussel2.com. The forms cited here are conspicuous for their multiple phonological irregularities and apparent morphological reanalyses. This strongly suggests that the form has been borrowed, probably from Malay. According to Alton L. Becker (p.c.) a similar folk belief is found in Burma. If true it is tempting to hypothesize that the puntianak belief was ultimately borrowed by speakers of an early form of Malay from a mainland Southeast Asian source and subsequently disseminated through much of island Southeast Asia.
  37. ^ "ACD - Austronesian Comparative Dictionary - Loans - c". www.trussel2.com. Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff's (1934-38) inclusion of Fijian vosa 'speak, talk' under a reconstruction ucap 'speak, converse with' appears unjustified.
  38. ^ Haspelmath, Martin. Loanwords in the World's Languages: A Comparative Handbook. De Gruyter Mouton. p. 724. ISBN 3110218437.
  39. ^ Potet, Jean-Paul G. (2016). Tagalog Borrowings and Cognates. Lulu.com. pp. 73, 191. ISBN 9781326615796.
  40. ^ a b POTET, Jean-Paul G. (2016). Tagalog Borrowings and Cognates. Lulu.com. p. 334. ISBN 9781326615796.
  41. ^ Albala, Ken (2011). Food Cultures of the World Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 217. ISBN 9780313376269. Pancit (also spelled pansit), or noodles, is a main-stay ingredient that has undergone significant adaptations in the preparation process. Filipinos use different types of noodles, such as those made from rice, egg, wheat, and mung beans, to make various pancit dishes. Introduced by the Chinese during the Spanish period, the dish has been Filipinized, and various regions have come up with their own versions as well.
  42. ^ Pacho, Arturo (1986). "The Chinese Community in the Philippines: Status and Conditions". Sojourn: Journal of Social Issues in Southeast Asia. 1 (1): 76.
  43. ^ Wickberg, Edgar (1962). "Early Chinese Economic Influence in the Philippines, 1850-1898" (PDF). Pacific Affairs. 35 (3): 275–285. It is known that the arrival of the Spanish in the late sixteenth century provided attractive economic opportunities which stimulated Chinese immigration to the Philippines in much greater volume than ever before. By the beginning of the seventeenth century there were over 20,000 Chinese in the Manila area - a number many times that of the Spanish settler.
  44. ^ Sánchez de Mora, Antonio (2016). Sabores que cruzaron los océanos = Flavors that sail across the seas. AECID Biblioteca Digital AECID. p. 64.
  45. ^ Chan-Yap, Gloria (1980). Hokkien Chinese borrowings in Tagalog. Dept. of Linguistics, School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University. p. 5. ISBN 9780858832251. The number of loanwords in the domain of cookery is rather large, and they are, by far, the most homogeneous of the loanwords.
  46. ^ Joaquin, Nick (2004). Culture and history. Pasig City. p. 42. ISBN 9712714268.
  47. ^ a b Chan-Yap, Gloria (1980). Hokkien Chinese borrowings in Tagalog. Dept. of Linguistics, School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University. p. 130. ISBN 9780858832251.
  48. ^ Chan-Yap, Gloria (1980). Hokkien Chinese borrowings in Tagalog. Dept. of Linguistics, School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University. p. 133. ISBN 9780858832251.
  49. ^ Scott, William Henry (1994). Barangay sixteenth-century Philippine culture and society. Ateneo de Manila University Press. p. 201. ISBN 9715501354.
  50. ^ Chee-Beng, Tan (2012). Chinese Food and Foodways in Southeast Asia and Beyond. NUS Press. p. 129. ISBN 9789971695484.
  51. ^ Chan-Yap, Gloria (1980). Hokkien Chinese borrowings in Tagalog. Dept. of Linguistics, School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University. p. 136. ISBN 9780858832251.
  52. ^ "ACD - Austronesian Comparative Dictionary - Loans - a". www.trussel2.com. Borrowing of Hokkien pú-thâu ‘axe’. This comparison was pointed out by Daniel Kaufman.
  53. ^ Potet, Jean-Paul G. (2016). Tagalog Borrowings and Cognates. Raleigh, NC: Lulu Press, Inc. p. 343. ISBN 9781326615796.
  54. ^ Ocampo, Ambeth R. (August 9, 2013). "Making useless information useful". Philippine Daily Inquirer. The trade and cultural exchange between the Philippines and Japan runs deep. In prewar Manila, Tansan was a popular brand of fizzy water (“tansan” in Japanese refers to carbonated mineral water). It was sold with the distinct metal bottle caps that have since been called tansan by Filipinos.
  55. ^ "TRANSLATIONS | Tagalog Interpreter and Translator - Caroline Carrera". www.tagaloginterpreter.com. Bonsay, weng-weng – Bansot, pandak
  56. ^ Cordero-Fernando, Gilda. "Our native 'slanguage'". “bonsai” means “dwarfed” or “short”
  57. ^ Ocampo, Ambeth R. (June 27, 2014). "Japan under our skin". Philippine Daily Inquirer. The childhood game “jak en poy,” with a nonsense rhyme in Filipino that accompanies the hand gestures of rock, scissors, and paper, traces its origin to the Japanese “janken pon.”
  58. ^ Adelstein, Jake (2 April 2016). "The drug problem that keeps getting older". The Japan Times Online. The slang term for stimulant drugs is shabu. The term comes from the verb “shaburu”, or “to suck upon”, which refers to the thirstiness that meth users often describe and is also a play on a Japanese phrase that means “being sucked to the bone” — basically stripped of everything you have. The drug is highly addictive, with users building up a tolerance to it before they eventually experience extreme delusions, paranoia and hallucinations.
  59. ^ a b Albalá, Paloma (2003). "Hispanic Words of Indoamerican Origin in the Philippines". Philippine Studies. 51 (1): 125–146. JSTOR 42633639.
  60. ^ a b León-Portilla, Miguel (1960). "Algunos nahuatlismos en el castellano de Filipinas". Estudios de cultura Náhuatl (in Spanish) (2): 135–138. ISSN 0071-1675.
  61. ^ Casado-Fresnillo, Antonio Quilis, Celia; Casado Fresnillo, Celia (2008). La lengua española en Filipinas : historia, situación actual, el chabacano, antología de textos (1st ed.). Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas. p. 410. ISBN 840008635X.


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